Wednesday, October 28, 2015

Autumn Lettuce Crop

Everything has been pulled and composted, but there is still a sunny, green corner in my garden.

It is the autumn crop of lovely delicious lettuces. 

This year, I planted bib and romaine lettuce and added a new variety, 
Raspberry Dressing

It is gorgeous, tangy and really makes a salad pop!

It has red veined dark green leaves, hardy and cold tolerant. It has handled 2 hard frosts very well.

According to this website, I might get lucky, and have it sprout from the roots 
for an extra early spring crop!

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Protect Your Living Soil for the Winter!

After attending a seminar titled, The Down and Dirty: Soil Building Secrets for Greener Gardens by Elizabeth Murphy of Oregon, who has recently published a book called: Building Soil: A Down to Earth Approach, I decided to reevaluate how I put my gardens to bed for the winter.  

I liked how she explained, that soil is a collection of living organisms that comprise the first few inches of soil and need to be cared for like any organism. It has the same basic needs including: water, food, air and shelter/space. During the winter, soil and its organisms need to be protected from exposure and erosion.

I was inspired to try another way to care for my garden soil during the winter. In the past, I have tried a cover crop such as buckwheat, which she advocates for, but I found it unwieldy to deal with in the spring. I tried covering it with black plastic and was fairly satisfied with this approach, but there are no added nutrients with this method. However, there were fewer weeds and the soil was protected. 

Instead of taking all the spent and dead plants and the nutrients that they embody out of the garden in the fall and taking them to the compost pile, why not leave them in place and compose them there directly. So, with my cutting flower bed, I have left the zinnias in place. The birds, overwintering or who haven't left on migration, have continued to feast on the left-over seeds. This will protect the soil from wind and rain, and the blowing or washing away of all the nutrients or compacting by pounding rains or snow.

I have covered another bed with black plastic for comparison sake. I was surprised to see who was sneaking about. Note the large turkey prints!

She has lots of great ideas, including fall cover crops such as clover and using cardboard, 
all ideas I would like to try next fall. 

Here is a story well worth reading: 

Here is a link to her blog: 

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Autumn Meadow Plants Series: Part I - Shift from Common Milkweed to Dogbane

There has been a dramatic shift in the diversity of plants in the upper meadow this year. The Common Milkweed population has plummeted from over 1000 plants to just around 50 and it has been replaced by another milky sapped plant, Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum). (See Blog entry: July 7, 2014 for earlier story)

The meadow went from looking like this:

to this, in just over a year: 

There is greater diversity, than just 2 years ago, including many hardwood tree saplings including Sweetgum and Black Cherry, numerous grasses and the following plants:

Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadenis)
Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)
Yellow Toadflax (Linaria vulgarius)
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Common Ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)
Wild Carrot (Daucus carota)
Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
White Heath Aster (Symphyotrichum ericoides)
Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)

In this entry, the focus is on the expansion of Dogbane, what it is and its role for pollinators. 

Dogbane or also known as Indian Hemp, grows 2 - 5' tall, is smooth, red-stemmed, which are filled with a milky, latex sap that is bitter tasting and highly toxic. It prefers full sun and wet soil and spreads aggressively from underground rhizomes. 

In early summer, it produces a grouping of small fragrant white flowers which are an excellent nectar source for many pollinators, including many different types of bees, butterflies, skippers, fritillaries and is a host to many larvae of various moths.(See:

Historically, this plant's silky fibers were used by the Lenni Lenape and other Native Americans to make robe, netting and baskets. In the fall, long seed pods hang in clusters and pop open as they dry, to expose seeds, which are attached to white silky threads to help them float long distances. 

Common Milkweed and Dogbane are often mistaken for one another due to similar leaf shape and plant size and shape and flower clusters. Because it contains a milky, poisonous sap as Common Milkweed and serves as a host to many other pollinator larvae, I wondered if it was also a host plant for Monarchs? 

It is NOT, according to Robert Dirig of Cornell, who confirmed that Monarch definitely do not use it as a host plant. (See:

The question remains of why Dogbane out competed Common Milkweed. They both have deep aggressively spreading rhizomes and prefer disturbed ground, sun and wet conditions, which are all present in this meadow. Perhaps, Milkweed has encountered a disease or a pest 
(see: t There were no reported disease issues with Dogbane, that I could find. Perhaps, it was the combination of increased Goldenrod and Dogbane populations that have pushed out the Milkweed?

The upper meadow will be mowed November 1 this year. It will be interesting to see the changes in the coming year. 

Check back for the continuation of this series: Autumn Meadow Plants Series: Part II: Newcomers: Ironweed and Asters.